Norms and Results

Student essays are scored using ERB's 6-trait, 6-point rubric informed by the expectations for each grade level and the development expected in the genre addressed. Reports include individual student trait scores expectations for each grade level. Individual trait scores, total trait scores, scale scores, proficiency level data, and similar comparative data for groups (class, school, or district). Comparative data is based upon results of each group over the last two or three years by genre and grade, depending upon the prompt type.  


Mean total raw scores, are provided in reports for Independent and Suburban (and, where applicable, International) norm groups for comparative analysis. Your school has the option to select which comparative group data to include or not show on the updated Parent or Teacher Individual Student Reports.  Comparative data is seen in all Summary reports as they are designed for school use. Class, Grade, School, and District Summary reports also include the percentage of students at each trait score point and total score point for the school. Summary reports include Proficiency Levels and percentages for the class, school, or district that are seen as Developing, Meeting, or Exceeding expectations for the grade and genre. 

WrAP users may learn more about all data through our Guides to Reports and the Guide to Understanding Proficiency Levels and Scale Scores found under Resources on the WrAP Portal. 


Independent School Norms (IN):

  • Available for levels 3 through 12 for spring and fall test-takers. 
  • Two-year rolling norms of independent ERB member schools who administer WrAP in the U.S.

Suburban School Norms (SN):

  • Available for levels 3 through 12 for spring and fall test-takers.
  • Two-year rolling norms of suburban public ERB member schools who administer WrAP in the U.S.

International School Norms (OI):

  • All international schools are included in the norms base.
  • Two-year rolling norms of ERB member schools who administer the WrAP outside the U.S.

Local Norms (LN):

Available for the district (if applicable), the school (grade), or the class. District, grade, and class norms are not included on parent reports.